The pie charts show average household expenditure in Britain and Honk Kong in the year 2000.
How many paragraphs should I write for graph answers?
– Write 4 paragraphs in total.
1st para: Introduction. Write one sentence only. Rephrase the question, do not copy long phrases from the question.
2nd and 3rd para: body paragraphs in which you describe the main features. Here, you need to compare and contrast. Use language of comparison like ‘the highest, biggest, more, less, the least’ etc. If you do not compare figures you will not get a good score.
4th para: Write a brief summary. Write one or two sentences only. Summarise the key features. Do not write any figures. Start the para ‘To sum up, ….’
(Para 1: In the introduction, write one sentence only. Rephrase the question, do not copy long phrases from the question.)
The graph describes the proportion of money spent by households in Britain and Hong Kong on different items in 2000.
How to start the body: (Para 2. Start by reporting the highest figures.) In the two countries, the families spent differently on most items. In Britain, other goods and services accounted for the highest expenditure (36% of the total budget) while in Hong Kong, the largest expenditure was on housing at 32% of the total.
(Next, report the difference in spending between the countries.) Families in Honk Kong spent more on housing and food than families in Britain. On housing, the difference was more noticeable- nearly two times. However, on other goods and services, clothing, and transport, expenditure was more in Britain. On transport, they spent nearly twice as much as families in Hong Kong.
(Para 3. Next, write about the similarities.) However, there are some similarities also. In both countries, the lowest expenditure was on clothing –below 10%. Food constituted about a quarter of the total family budget in both cases.
(Write a brief summary. Do not include figures; write general comments only.)
To sum up, in the two countries, the expenditure patterns were very different. However, other goods and services, food and housing were the three important items for both families while clothing made up the lowest expenditure.
Percentage or percent?
Read % as percent not percentage. E.g. 5% is five percent NOT five percentage.
Percentage is used after ‘the’. Example: The percentage of travelers. The percentage of unemployment.
Remember these points: Start with the highest value.
Make comparisons. Use words like ‘biggest, largest, more, less, spent twice as much’ etc.
(Note: – In a line chart or when there are many years, you should report the trends. Trend means changes like the number increased or decreased or remained steady. Also, you must compare with words like more, less.)
(Introduction: rephrase the question. Write only one sentence.)
The graph describes the percentage of unemployed workforce in two countries, the US and Japan, between 1993 and 1999.
(In all line graphs, start by reporting all the initial figures. Make comparisons when possible.)
(Note: Do not report trends in the US from beginning to end in one paragraph and then trends in Japan in another paragraph.)
Body paragraph1: In the beginning, the two countries had very different unemployment rates. The US had a much higher proportion of unemployed workers, that is, 7% of the total workforce compared to 3% in Japan.
(Next report the trend in the US)
However, there was a significant fall in the rate in the US over the next few years with the figure falling to 5% by mid-1996.
(Or, However, there was a significant fall in the rate in the US over the next few years and the figure fell to 5% by mid-1996.)
(Next report the trend in Japan)
By contrast, Japan had the opposite trend. Here, the rate rose steadily from 3% in 1993 and by 1998, the figure reached the same level as in the US.
Body para 2: Towards the end, the rates of unemployment stabilised in both countries. The rates more or less remained at about 5% after March 1998 in the US and Japan.
Summary: To sum up, the two countries had very different unemployment rates and trends. While the rates rose in Japan, they fell in the US, and towards the end, the figures converge d in the two nations.
Note: There was a significant fall in the rate = The rate fell significantly.
Mistakes: fell down X fell
Write Us as the US.
Note: The graph shows number of visits NOT visitors. Also, read the figures as 120, 000 NOT 120,000’s.
Para 1: Introduction: The graph describes the visits two Music sites on the Internet received over a fifteen day period.
(Or, The graph describes the visits to two Music sites on the Internet over a fifteen day period.)
(In line graphs or graphs with many years, start by reporting all the figures in the beginning. Compare the figures. Do not write one full para about one line and then another para for the next line.)
Para 2: In the beginning, Pop Parade was more popular than Music Choice receiving 120,000 visits on day one as opposed to 40,000 of its rival.
(Or, Pop Parade was more popular than Music Choice and received 120,000 visits…)
(After reporting the initial figures, report general trends. Don’t report minor changes. Divide the graph into two periods.)
However, visits to Pop Parade fell significantly over the next few days reaching 40,000 on day 7.
(Next report the trends for the other music site)
In contrast, the figure for Music Choice remained more or less steady at about 30,000 during the first 11 days.
Para 3: During the last few days, there was a remarkable increase in the visits to both sites. Visits to Pop Parade shot up to 150,000 on day 11 and after a fall, the figures again rose to 170,000 on the last day.
(Report the trends for the other site)
As for Music Choice, the visits soared to 120,000 between days 11 and 14, but the figure fell sharply to 80,000 on the fifteenth day.
Para 4: To sum up, visits to both sites fluctuated over the period, but Pop Parade was more popular than Music Choice.
Mistakes: visits fell down X visits fell.
The line graph describes consumption of electricity in a British household in two seasons, summer and winter while the accompanying chart shows what the power is used for.
Report the important difference: The total demand is different in both seasons.
In winter, the overall the demand is much higher, and it ranges between 30,000 and 45,000 units compared to 13,000 and 20,000 units in summer.
Report the trends in the morning and afternoon in winter and summer:
In winter, the consumption fluctuates in the morning while in the afternoon, the figure remains steady at 40,000 units. In summer also, the demand falls steadily in the morning, and then rises to stabilise in the afternoon at about 18,000 units.
Report when the demand is highest:
In winter, the demand is highest at 45,000 units at 23 hours while in summer, consumption peaks at noon and at midnight when the figure reaches just 20,000 units.
Report the main features of the pie chart:
As per the pie chart, heating takes up more than half of the total electricity consumed and electrical equipment like fans and washing machines accounts for the rest.
To sum up, demand for electricity is much greater in winter, and heating was the most important purpose.
Note: There is no need to mention the survey. The main phrase is ‘shows factors affecting their work performance’. Try to rephrase these phrases for the introduction.
How to report: Report the most important and the least important factors for the two groups. Then the factors they agree and disagree on.
The given chart describes the different factors that influenced the performance of workers aged 18 to 30 and 45 to 60 years. The workers are divided into two age groups: 18-30 years and 45-60 years.
(Now report the most important factors and the least important factors for each group)
For the younger group, the most important factor was chance for personal development with about 90% of them affected by it. By contrast, the senior workers felt money was more important than other factors – about 70% chose it. The least influential factors were work environment for the junior employees and job security for the seniors.
(Now report where they have similar opinions and disagreements)
On factors such as team spirit, competent boss, respect from colleagues and job satisfaction there was agreement among the two groups. However, they disagreed on factors such as chance for personal development, relaxed working environment and promotion prospects which were more important to the younger workers.
Overall, among the ten factors, the two most important factors affecting the work performance of the workers were chance for personal development and money while factors like job security and work environment were considered less important.
Understand the idea in the graph first: When employees are young, they study for building their career. But when they are older, they study because of their interest in a subject.
The graph shows: the proportion of workers studying for career and studying for interest.
The first chart describes the proportion of workers who went to study for two different reasons – career and interest. The second chart illustrates the support they received from their employer at different ages. The workers belong to five age groups- under 26 to over 49 years.
It is clear that when they are young, majority of workers study for career. So, 80% of workers aged below 26 take up study for career. However, as age increases, this percentage falls steadily reaching 15% when they are over 49. By contrast, the proportion of workers who study for interest rises from 10% to 70% when they are aged 49 or over.
As per the second chart, (learn this phrase) younger employees receive more employer support with the under 26 getting the highest at 60%. The support is less in the case of older employees.
Overall, younger employees study for advancing their career while older employees do it because of their interest in a particular subject. Also, the younger employees tend to get more employer support.
Note: The chart shows future sales. So, use phrases like sales will rise/ fall, sales are expected to rise/ fall etc.
Introduction: The bar chart describes the sales projections for two companies selling silver goods namely, Mark Jones and Meteor Products during the next year while the accompanying diagram shows their market share at the year-end.
(Start line graphs, or graphs with many years, by reporting all the figures in the beginning. Also, make comparisons)
Mark Jones will start the year with sales of 450,000 units compared to 150,000 units of its rival.
(Divide the graph into first six months and next six months and report the overall trends)
After falling in February, the sales of Mark Jones will gradually rise to 400,000 in June. By comparison, sales of Meteor Products will rise to just 250,000 units during the same period.
(Now report the second half of the year.)
Both companies will perform much better in the second half with the sales of Mark Jones shooting up to 900,000 units in December. By comparison, sales for Meteor Products are expected to rise to 600,000 units by the end of the year.
(Now report the figures in the pie chart.)
As per the pie chart, (learn this phrase) Mark Jones will have a bigger market share of 30% as opposed to 20% of its rival.
To sum up, though both companies are projected to have rising sales during the year, Mar Jones will have better sales and a larger market share.
The bar chart provides information about Japanese travellers going overseas between 1985 and 1995. The accompanying line graph describes the proportion of them travelling to Australia during the same period.
It is clear that there was a significant rise in the number of tourists travelling abroad over the period. In 1985, five million visitors travelled abroad, and over the next five years, it more than doubled reaching 11 million in 1990. After a slight drop in 1991, the figure rose again to reach 15 million in 1995.
Japanese travellers visiting Australia also showed a similar increase in their proportion. The share was just 2% in 1985. However, between 1985 and 1993, it rose markedly to reach 8% in 1993 though in 1989 and 1994 the figure dipped.
Overall, the number of Japanese travellers going abroad and the percentage of them going to Australia registered a considerable growth during the period under consideration.
The bar chart bar describes weekly expenditure per person on three fast food items by three income groups in the UK. The accompanying line graph illustrates the intake of these fast foods between 1970 and 1990.
(Start with the most popular food for the three groups and how much they spent on them)
It is clear that for the high income and middle income groups, the most popular food is hamburger, and they spend 45 and 35 pence on it respectively. By contrast, the low income group spends the most on fish and chips (18 pence).
(Next, report how much they spent on other two items)
While the high income group spent nearly the same on fish and chips and pizza (about 20 pence), the middle and low income groups spend nearly twice as much on fish and chips.
As per the line graph, there was a significant increase in the consumption of hamburger, rising from 90 grams in 1970 to about 550 grams in 1990. The intake of pizza also grew, but consumption of fish and chips fell over the period.
Overall, expenditure on fast foods was directly proportional to income and hamburger was the most preferred fast food and its consumption rose considerably over the period.
Note: change the years in the question as 2015 and 2018.
The given table describes the popularity of twelve tourist destinations in the UK in 2015 and 2018.
(Start by reporting the most popular destinations in 2015 and 2018))
In 2015, Alton Towers was the most popular destination receiving 2.65 million visitors, but this will be replaced by the new attractions Millennium Dome and London eye in 2018 with about 6.5 million and 3.3 million people visiting them respectively.
(Report the changes expected in 2018. Report the fall in visits)
All the attractions with the exception of Victoria & Albert Museum and Flamingo Land Theme Park & Zoo are expected to report a fall in visits. The most significant decrease will be at the Science Museum (a fall of 9.8%) followed by Madam Tussaud’s (9.5%). Chessington World of Adventures will register the smallest fall in numbers when its figure will drop by 3.2%.
(Report the rise in visits)
On the other hand, Victoria & Albert Museum and Flamingo Land Theme Park & Zoo will see a rise in visits of between 7% and 9%.
Overall, the two newly opened attractions will receive a significant number of visits, and there will be a fall in visitors to others with just two exceptions.
The given table compares the underground railway networks in six different cities in terms of their age, route length and the number of passengers they carry annually.
(Report the oldest/ largest systems)
Of the six networks, the system in London was the oldest and the largest – opened in 1863 and having 394 kilometres of route length. The networks in Paris and Tokyo also were relatively old and large, operating since 1900 and 1927 with 199 and 155 kilometres of route.
Tokyo and Paris systems carried more than one billion passengers per year with the network in Tokyo carrying the largest (1.9 billion passengers) even though its route length was shorter than the systems in London and Paris.
Washington DC, Los Angeles and Kyoto had relatively newer and smaller systems. The network in Kyoto, opened in 2001, was the newest and the smallest among all the six with just 11 kilometres of route.
Overall, older networks were larger and served more passengers than newer systems.
The given table describes the savings rates in seven countries over a period of 30 years from 1970 to 2000.
(Report overall trends)
It is clear that almost all countries recorded a dramatic drop in their saving rates over the period with the highest fall reported in Italy where the rate more than halved (from 29.5% in 1970 to 11.4% in 2000).
France, Germany and Japan also saw the rates falling and ended with saving rates between 11% and 14%. In the USA, the figure fell drastically from 8.2% to 4% by 2000.
The UK was the only exception where the rate actually rose, although marginally, by about 2% to 11.2%. In Canada the saving rates fluctuated wildly when it first doubled in 1990 and then dropped to just under 2% by the end of the period.
Overall, the saving rates in most of the countries fell over the period, and Canada showed the greatest fluctuations.
The given pictures describe how Laguna Beach changed during a forty year period from 1950 to 1990.
In the beginning, the beach had only a few beach huts at the centre. There were sand dunes to the west and woodland to the east with a narrow track leading away from the huts.
Major changes took place during the 20 years from 1950 to 1970. The beach huts were replaced by a number of villas, and a Caravan Park was built after clearing the woodland. The narrow track was developed into a two-lane road.
The next twenty years saw several changes on the beach. The most important one was building a hotel with a swimming built at the centre of the beach with a landscaped garden to the west. In addition, the caravan park was converted into a car park and a new surf school was built at the edge of the beach.
Overall, during the 40 years significant changes took place on Laguna Beach which transformed it from a quiet beach into a crowded beach resort.
Learn to read directions:
North: To the top of the paper; South: To the bottom
West: To your left East: To your right side;
The given diagram illustrates the cyclical process by which a new type of bio-degradable plastic is produced from cereal crops then recycled after use.
In the first stage, cereal crops are processed to make glucose. This glucose is then fermented with bacteria in the fermentation chamber to produce PHB polymer. This polymer is used to make plastic bottles.
In the next stage, the bottles are filled with shampoos and detergents and sold in the market. After use, some bottles are recycled while some others are used for landfill or burnt. The burnt bottles and those used in landfill produce carbon dioxide which dissolves in the atmosphere. Finally, the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is absorbed by the cereal crops which are again used for producing plastic. The cyclical process continues.
Overall, the cyclical process uses crops to produce biodegradable plastic which is fully recycled so that it does not leave any waste.
The two maps describe the changes that took place in the village of Stokeford over an eighty year period between 1930 and 2010.
In the beginning, Stokeford was a farming village with large areas of farmland. But over the 80 year period several changes took place and the most noticeable change in 2010 is the disappearance of the farms replaced by houses. Long rows of houses have been built on both sides of the road that runs through the middle of the village. Adjacent to the old post office, new shops have come up. Another major change has been the extension of the Primary school with two new wings added.
The large garden located close to the main road has been reduced in size for building houses. Also, the retirement house situated south of the Primary school has been extended with two additional buildings. The bridge across the river has remained unchanged.
Overall, the eighty year period saw the farming village change into a crowded city with less open space.
Note: Change the date in the question to 2000, 2016 (present year) and 2020.
The given chart describes the quantity of oil produced by different regions during a 20 year period from 2000 to 2020.
The chart reveals that the total oil produced worldwide has nearly doubled from 10 million barrels per day to nearly 20 million barrels at present. Also, the OPEC Middle East has become the biggest supplier of oil with its share increasing five-fold from just 2 million barrels per day to nearly 10 million barrels. On the other hand, the share of Other OPEC producers has fallen to about 5 million barrels from 8 million barrels in 2000. A new group of oil producing countries contribute another 5 million barrels.
In the future, total oil production will more or less stabilise at 20 million. OPEC Middle East will dominate the world oil production producing 15 million barrels while the share of Non OPEC and other OPEC will fall. Together they will contribute another 4 million barrels to the total world production.
Overall, in the future, most of the oil will come from OPEC Middle East whereas contribution by other regions is predicted to shrink.
The given pie charts describe the kind of accommodation holiday makers selected in 1985, 1995 and 2005
It is clear that staying with friends and camping became less popular options with holidaymakers over the period. While nearly half of all the travellers chose to stay with friends and relatives during their holidays in 1985, by 2005, only 30% preferred this. In the case of camping, the figure more than halved reaching 5% over the same period.
By contrast, there was a significant increase in the percentage of travellers choosing hotels, and in 2005, one in every two preferred to stay in a hotel. Likewise, caravan became a more attractive option with a little more than a tenth of the travellers selecting this in 2005.
To sum up, the charts clearly indicate that hotels and caravans became more popular with the travellers whereas staying with friends or relatives and camping became less preferred options.
The given table describes the per capita chocolate intake by both sexes in seven different countries in the year 2000.
Consumption in the seven countries varied greatly, and the total intake per person ranged between 0.9 kg to over 10 kg. Switzerland had the highest consumption where 10.3 kg per head was eaten while people in Austria and the UK had 9.8 and 8.4 kg respectively. By contrast, Brazil and Japan reported very low consumption rates with Brazil having the lowest (0.9 kg.).
Intake by men and women was more or less the same in the seven countries except for Belgium and Austria where women ate more. Consumption by men in Switzerland was the highest among all the countries (5.3 kg) while Austria reported the highest intake among women (6.0 kg). For both men and women, Brazil had the lowest intake rates- just about half a kilogram.
Overall, chocolate intake was more in European countries, and Switzerland and Austria were the two biggest consumers.
The given graph describes the per capita nutrient consumption by both sexes throughout their lives.
At the age of two, the energy intake is almost the same for both male and female infants – about 6000 kilo joules. However, soon there is a sharp rise in the intake with the consumption shooting up to 1300o kilo joules for teenage boys and 9000 for girls. This difference of 5000 kilo joules in the intake is maintained more or less at the same level throughout their lives.
It is also seen that the intake of both men and women falls progressively from the age of 35 and reaches 10000 and 7000 kilo joules for men and women respectively at 55 years. Thereafter, the consumption is sustained roughly at the same level.
Overall, it can be seen that though both men and women have very similar intake patterns, men consume much more energy than women throughout their lives.
The given line graph describes the number of travellers to and from the UK between 1990 and 2030 while the accompanying bar chart compares the countries most visited by the British travellers in 2000.
In 1990, the visits to the UK and from the UK were more or less the same at 10 million. However, the visits from the UK have increased significantly to 25 million at present while the visits to the UK have grown to about 15 million.
In the future, there will be a marked increase in both figures. In 2030, about 23 million tourists will come to the UK while travellers from the UK will be about 45 million.
As per the bar chart, in 2000, France was the most popular destination with 12 million the British visitors, while Spain received 9 million. The USA, Greece and Turkey attracted fewer than 5 million travellers.
Overall, the visits to the UK and from the UK show an increasing trend over the period, but travellers form the UK will outnumber those coming to the UK. Also, France was the most popular destination with the British tourists in 2000.